General Science Overview

Science is a vast field of study. It is essentially a systematic and logical approach to discovering how things work in our world. It is based on facts learned through experiments and observation. Science is how we improve our knowledge about the universe and the world around us. 
There are various forms of science. The types of sciences can be divided into three broad subdivisions: 

Life sciences: Encompasses anything that is living, including people, animals, plants and even things as small as bacteria or viruses.
  2.Physical sciences:  The study of the non-living systems of the world. 
  3.Earth sciences: The study of Earth and neighbouring bodies.  

The Scientific Method:
The scientific method is a research method where a problem is identified, relevant data is gathered, a hypothesis is made from the data and the hypothesis is then tested. But not all areas of science can use this method of testing; sometimes, scientists must modify the scientific method. I.e. scientists studying how dinosaurs digested their food cannot do medical examinations on feeding dinosaurs to test their hypothesis. 

There are six steps to the scientific method, according to Science Buddies.org:

1. Ask a question
 Do background research: Instead of starting with little or nothing, put together a plan to help you answer your question.
 Make a hypothesis:  A good hypothesis will allow you to make a prediction; “If _____[I do this]_____, then_____[this]____will happen.”
Test your hypothesis by experimenting: Test your prediction to find out if it was accurate and if your hypothesis is supported. Experiments should always be repeated several times to ensure your first results weren’t an accident. 
 Analyze your findings and draw a conclusion: When you have finished experimenting, analyze your data to see whether or not it supports your hypothesis.
 Communicate your results: Write a report or post your results on a display board for a science fair!


Variable describes a quantity or condition that can change during an experiment. An experiment usually has three kinds of variables:

  Independent variable: What you decide to change in an experiment.
  Dependent variables: What you measure or observe during an experiment.
  Control variables: What you want to stay consistent during an experiment. Controlled variables need to be observed as closely as dependent variables. 

There are ten main branches of science:

Physics: The science of energy and matter and how they relate to each other.

Here is a list of exciting careers in the world of Physics!
  Check out these fantastic Physics simulations by PhET!

Biology: The science of life and living organisms and the changes that occur with and around all living things.

Kimberly Hobbs is an Aquatic Science Technician for Fisheries and Oceans Canada.
Madison Acker is a Science Interpreter at Manuals River Interpretation Centre.
Sarika Kumari is a Biochemistry Doctoral Researcher at MUN.
Here is a list of exciting careers in the world of Biology. You can also check out these cool Biology simulations by PhET.

Chemistry: The branch of science that deals with the properties, composition and structure of elements and compounds.

Seerat Virk Gill is an Organic Chemistry Doctoral Researcher at MUN!
Here is a list of exciting career options in the world of Chemistry!  Check out these cool Chemistry simulations by PhET!

Zoology: The scientific study of the behaviour, structure, physiology, classification and distribution of animals. 

Here is a list of career options in the world of Zoology.

Astronomy: The study of everything in the universe beyond the Earth’s atmosphere. 

Here is some information about careers in Astronomy.
Bethany Downer is an Astronaut working with Hubble Space Telescope for the European Space Agency.

Medicine: The science of dealing with health maintenance and the prevention and treatment of disease. 

Helen Scott is an Epidemiologist working with Pinnguaq and the World Health Organization.
Dawn Armstrong is a Medical Oncologist with Eastern Health.
Danya Butler works with Eastern Health as a General Internist and is a Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at MUN.

Astrophysics: A branch of space science that applies the laws of physics and chemistry to explain the birth, life, and death of stars, planets, galaxies, nebulae, and other objects in the universe.

  Check out the YouTube channel Astrophysics for kids to learn more about astrophysics.

Earth Sciences: The study of Earth’s structure, properties, processes, and four and a half billion years of biotic evolution. 

  Check out these excellent Earth Science simulations by PhET.
Amanda McCallum is a Geologist in NL.
Ashley Brauweiler is a Meteorologist in NL.
Melissa Jones is an SSU Advisor and Environmental and Regulatory Advisor for Equinor.

Environmental Science: A group of scientific disciplines concerned with the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the surroundings in which organisms live.

Here’s a list of careers in environmental sciences.

Biomedicine: The application of biology and physiology to clinical medicine.

Here is a list of some careers in biomedicine.

Check these out:

Stop Disasters Game – Play and learn the risks posed by natural hazards and how to manage resources and protect the local population.

Check out Professor Dave Explains on YouTube for more high school science.


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