Learning disabilities affect people’s ability to interpret what they see and hear or the ability to link information from different parts of the brain. Learning disabilities or learning disorders is an umbrella term for various learning problems.
The main types of learning disabilities are reading disabilities, writing disabilities and mathematics disabilities.
We have listed some helpful and informative resources for people who have or think they have learning disabilities below!

5 Most Common Learning Disabilities:

1. Dyslexia – Difficulty recognizing letters, learning letter sounds, speech sounds and identifying rhyming words. Also called a reading disability.
I.e., one might read the word “won” as “now” or “felt” as “left.” Words might blend together; spaces are lost. Have trouble retaining or remembering what you read but remember more easily when you hear the same information aloud.

2. ADHD – Difficulty paying attention and staying on task, easily distracted and often have difficulties in a traditional school setting.
I.e., Having a short attention span, being distracted by minor things, losing things, finding it very difficult to or being unable to stick to tasks, especially those that are tedious or time-consuming. Making careless mistakes in schoolwork or everyday life, appearing forgetful – like going upstairs to get your phone charger and forgetting what you are doing and coming back downstairs with nothing or a handful of random items, none of which is the item you intended to get.

3. Dyscalculia  – Problems with learning math fundamentals, including basic number skills. It impairs someone’s ability to learn number-related concepts, do accurate math calculations, reason and problem solve, and perform other basic math skills. Dyscalculia is sometimes called “number dyslexia” or “math dyslexia.”

4. Dysgraphia – Distorted and incorrect handwriting plus issues with fine motor skills. A deficiency in the ability to write and comprehension. It can interfere with practically all aspects of the writing process, including spelling, legibility, word spacing and sizing, and expression. 

5. Dyspraxia – Difficulties involving balance and fine motor control. A person with dyspraxia has problems with movement, coordination, judgment, processing, memory, and other cognitive skills. 

General resources:

Learning Disabilities Association of Canada works nationally with regional and local partners to build awareness about learning disabilities in communities across Canada. 

Learning Disabilities Association of Newfoundland and Labrador acts as a provincial network for individuals with learning disabilities and those who support them.

Understood  – The lifelong guide for those who learn and think differently. 


Understanding Dyscalculia: Symptoms Explained
The National Centre For Learning Disabilities
Learning Disabilities, What Are the Different Types?
Building Better Brains with Lorraine Driscoll 


5 Facts about dyslexia:

– It is estimated that fifteen to twenty percent of the population has a reading disability. In Canada, that’s an estimated 5 million people!

– Dyslexia doesn’t mess with your IQ; it messes with how you learn. Unconventional and specialized learning techniques may be necessary for success when someone has dyslexia. 

– Dyslexia affects all genders nearly equally and people from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.

 Dyslexia is believed to be hereditary. People might inherit the genetic links for dyslexia from their parents or even their grandparents!

 Agatha Christi, Edgar Allen Poe, Ernest Hemingway and Jules Vern were all believed to be dyslexic. Dyslexia doesn’t prevent you from becoming a successful writer!


What is dyslexia? – Kelli Sandman-Hurley
Arije-Aike de Haas


Dyslexia Canada
Understanding Dyslexia
Types of Dyslexia


5 Facts about ADD/ADHD:

 ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

– ADHD is the official medical term for the condition. ADD is a now-outdated term.

 Myth: All kids with ADHD are hyperactive. Fact: Some children with ADHD are hyperactive, but others with attention problems are not. Children with ADHD who are inattentive but not overly active may appear spacey and unmotivated.

– An estimated 5% of Canadian students are affected by ADHD (Statistics Canada 2015). That number is currently thought to be around 9%.


ADD/ADHD | What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?
A Day in the Life of Someone with ADHD


ADDitude Magazine
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Overview
ADHD Information Tips Tricks
The Ultimate ADHD Meme Collection


5 Facts about dyscalculia:

– There are five different main types of dyscalculia:

 Verbal dyscalculia: When someone has trouble writing down the numbers or equations dictated to them. People with this type of dyscalculia can read and write numbers but have a hard time when they are presented verbally.

    Ideognostical dyscalculia:  When someone is unable to or has difficulty retaining/repeating what they’ve learned after a class or session but did fine during the class or session.

    Practognostic dyscalculia: When someone has difficulty translating mathematical concepts into actual concepts or the inability to tell the difference between quantities and values of things they come across in real life.

    Lexical dyscalculia: The opposite of verbal dyscalculia. Someone with lexical dyscalculia has trouble understanding, reading and copying mathematical numbers or symbols, expressions and equations. They understand the concepts when spoken but may have trouble when it comes to writing and understanding them.

Graphical dyscalculia: When someone has difficulty writing mathematical symbols. They can understand mathematical concepts but have a hindered ability to read, write or use the correct corresponding symbols. 

   Operational dyscalculia: When someone can understand the numbers and the relationship between them but has trouble manipulating the numbers and symbols in the calculation process.

– The term ‘dyscalculia’ was coined in the 1940s by Dr. Josef Gerstmann in a paper he wrote about a rare neurological disorder that can occur due to a brain injury or as a developmental disorder.

 Having a hard time distinguishing between left and right, making change when buying something, associating symbols with directions, or telling time on a clock with hands are all symptoms of dyscalculia.

– You cannot cure dyscalculia, but you can tackle it with accommodations!

 There is no single test for dyscalculia. It is usually diagnosed through evaluation that tests specific math skills and general cognitive abilities.


What is Dyscalculia? Math Learning Disability Overview 
What is Dyscalculia? – Maths Dyslexia – Simple Explanation and Solution
Living with Dyscalculia (It’s Not Just “Number Dyslexia”)
How To Manage Dyscalculia | 4 Ways To Manage A Math Disorder


Specific Learning Disorder With Impairment in Mathematics
An entire website dedicated to dyscalculia 
Dyscalculia Around The World blog


5 Facts about dysgraphia: 

 There are different types of dysgraphia.

 Signs of dysgraphia include: being better at communicating through speech than through writing, tight or awkward pencil grip, awkward body position or eyes too close to the paper; sore hands when finished writing or tires quickly when writing by hand, uneven spaces between written letters and words, trouble with taking notes; thinking and writing at the same time

– Not everyone who has dyspraxia has messy handwriting 

– Dysgraphia doesn’t mean you have a low IQ. Many individuals with writing issues are bright, creative and successful

 Dysgraphia can occur on its own or alongside other learning disabilities such as ADHD, dyslexia and dyscalculia, just to name a few.  Having dysgraphia doesn’t mean you are more likely to have dyslexia. 

– Pencil grips and writing aids like a keyboard, tablet or other technology can be helpful so a person can focus on the ideas rather than the mechanics of writing.


What Is Dysgraphia in Kids?
Dyslexic Advantage | What is Dysgraphia?
Rewiring Dyspraxia from the Brain | Farah Nanji | TEDxLuxembourgCity 


Five common myths about dyspraxia
Dysgraphia vs Dyslexia


5 Facts about dyspraxia:

 Dyspraxia is also known as Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

 Dyspraxia is a motor skills issue that makes it hard to learn new skills and affects body
movements. It is not a muscle deficit. A person with dyspraxia knows what they want their body to do but can’t get their body to do it.

 People with dyspraxia may struggle with handwriting, coordination and balance, organization or remembering things, speech and language use

– There are three types of dyspraxia: oral, verbal and motor. 

– Most people with dyspraxia are very creative and tend to be original and think outside the box


What is Dyspraxia?
Childhood dyspraxia: James’ story | NHS


Dyspraxia fact sheet


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